THE GASTROINTESTINAL NEUROENDOCRIN TUMORS
Keywords:the gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors (GI-NET), neuroendocrin tumors (NET), immunohistochemistry, carcinoid syndrome, surgical management
Objectives. The gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors are rare events with clinical presentation widely variable and surgical management that is often challenging.
Material and methods. We performed a retrospective study in the First Surgical Clinic, St Spiridon University Hospital, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania, in the 2005-2019 period, which included all the patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors by immunehistochemistry.
Results. There were 37 cases diagnosed with gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors. The ratio male/female was 15/22 and mean age was de 42±4.365 years old (range 27-79 years). The gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors were: 13 – gastric, one – duodenal, 10 cases – small intestine, 10 cases – appendicular, 7 cases – large intestine and hepatic metastases – 4 cases. The carcinoid syndrome was present in 7 cases. The biological diagnosis included biological markers (e.g. serotonine, 5-HIAA). Diagnosis of the tumor site and dimension was done by ultrasound exam, Computed Tomography scan, Positron Emission Tomography scan, Octreoscan and intraoperative ultrasonography. Surgical procedures for gastric neuroendocrin tumors were: wedge tumor resection – one case; subtotal gastrectomy – one case, total gastrectomies – 3 cases. For neuroendocrin tumors of small bowel we performed 6 enterectomies and 4 ileocolectomies with lymphadenectomy. We also performed 7 appendectomies and 3 right colectomies for appendicular carcinoids. We performed 4 right colectomies, 2 left colectomies and one low anterior resection of the rectum for colorectal neuroendocrin tumors. For neuroendocrin tumors with hepatic metastases disease we performed one hepatectomy and 3 termoablations.
Conclusions. The gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors are rare tumors, and their management is always challenging. Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for confirmation, appreciation of the proliferation and biological behavior, and permissible to use specific therapy. Aggressive surgical treatment is indicated, even in advanced stages. The treatment in patients with advanced gastrointestinal neuroendocrin tumors with metastatic disease include chemotherapy, biological therapies, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.
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